Contoh Bab 3 Skripsi Bahasa Inggris

Contoh Bab 3 Skripsi Bahasa Inggris

Berikut adalah contoh dari bab 3 skripsi bahasa inggris.

CHAPTHER III
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

1. Research Design
The design of this research was classroom action research. It is a research by a teacher as a researcher in her class or collaborates with collaborator in planning, doing, and acting the research in order to improve the student’s quality (Kunandar, 2011). 

This research conducted by following cycles that describe in the following scheme of classroom action research by Sthephan & Kemmis in O’Brien  (2001):

Contoh Bab 3 Skripsi Bahasa Inggris
Picture 1.1  Action Research model
2. Participant and Location of the research
This  research  was conducted at Grade XI social 3 of MAN 5 Tanjung Enim of 2019/2020 academic year. It is located on Jln. Tanjung Enim. There were 27 students that consist of 10 male and 17 female.

This research was conducted with English teacher of Grade XI social 3 of MAN 5 Tanjung Enim, Mrs. Sorabel  M.Pd as the collaborator. In this research, the researcher acted as the teacher who taught the students to improve speaking by using world cafe strategy.

3. Instrument of the research
There were three instruments of the research to collect data : test, observation checklist and field notes, and interview.

Test
Test is a way to know the students’ ability and force by asking the students through some questions in order to measure the students’ ability (Arikunto,1991). The using of instrument test in this research would find the students’ speaking ability progress in each cycle. The test was done by asking the students to speak orally. They had to speak in good accuracy and fluency. To ensure the reliability of the score, there were two scorers, the researcher herself and the collaborator.

Observation checklist and field notes
There were two kinds of observation checklist & field notes in this research; teacher’s observation checklist & field notes and  students’ observation checklist & field notes. The teacher’s observation checklist & field notes were used to identify and collect the improvement of the researcher in applying the strategy. This instrument consist of questions items that covers all of the teaching aspects such us; the way teacher explained the material, the teacher’s classroom management and etc. While, the students’ observation checklist & field notes also consist of questions items which used to identify and collect the improvement of the students in applying the strategy.

The researcher used Guttman scale in the teacher and students’ observation sheet. Riduwan (2004:90) stated that Guttman scale is a cumulative scale which only has two answers, yes or no. This scale can be used to know the clear answer. Mrs. Sorabel M.Pd as the research collaborator in this research helped the researcher fulfill the observation checklist & field notes.  The result of this observation checklist and field notes was used by the researcher to revise in the next cycle. (see appendix)

Interview
Interview is a way in collecting the qualitative data (Sukidin et al, 2002). In this research, the interview was used to know the effectiveness using the strategy in the classroom by the teacher and also to know the students’ responses of using world café strategy through some question. The researcher used the structure interview which the researcher written some questions that must be answered for the students.
(see appendix)

4. Procedure of The Research
The procedure of this research was based on Kemmis in O’Brien  (2001) theory. There were four steps of the research; plan, action, observe and reflect.

Cycle 1
a. Plan
The researcher wrote a lesson plan of world cafe strategy for speaking activity.
The researcher prepared some speaking exercise that was done by the students during world cafe strategy.
The researcher prepared observation checklist and field note form for checklist while implementing world cafe strategy.
The researcher prepared some interview questions for interview at the end of cycle.

b. Action 
The researcher taught the students about today’s topic.
The researcher facilitated the students form random groups of four.
The researcher gave the students a topic to discuss.
The researcher monitored the process that will be continued for several movements. ( 5 minutes each movement)
The researcher asked the students to perfom individually in front of the class.
The researcher facilitated the students concludes about todays topic.

c. Observe
An observation was about what were happening in the classroom activities were done in this stage. The instrument for observation activities were observation checklist and field note that were made base on lesson plan. It conducted in teaching and learning process. It was done by collaborator.

d. Reflect
For this step, students’ improvement in speaking of the cycle 1 collected and analyzed to measure the success level of the implementation of cycle 1. Through this reflection researcher identified the causes that made this method is less successful, and researcher plan the way to repair the unsuccessful thing in cycle 1. The result of this reflection was taken as a consideration to plan the nex for the next cycle.

Cycle 2
a. Revised Plan
This step was based on the reflection of the cycle 1. The researcher made some revision in the cycle 2 which helped by the collaborator. The researcher prepared the lesson plan about spoof  text to give some interesting topic to the students. The researcher also prepared the speaking test for the students after the strategy was implemented. Observation checklist and field notes were also designed based on the learning strategy of this research. There were some revisions in the cycle 2; the researcher asked students to bring dictionary, gave some interesting topic and would more paid attention to the effectiveness of the teaching and learning in the classroom.

Act
The action of this research was conducted by applying world café strategy based on the revised plan. This stage was consisted of three meetings. The action that the researcher did in this stage was more effective than the previous cycle. The researcher made sure the students were ready to learn and gave attention to the researcher’s explanation then helped the students as they learning. The researcher also gave some interesting topic and asked the students to bring dictionary in the learning process.

Observe
An observation was about what were happening in the classroom activities were done in this stage of the cycle 2. The instruments for observation activities were also teacher and students’ observation checklist and field notes by a collaborator.

Reflect
In this step, students’ speaking score improvement of the cycle 2 was collected and analyzed to measure the success level of the implementation of cycle 2. Through this reflect the researcher saw the improvement of the students’ speaking score. In the cycle 2, the indicator of success in this research has achieved. Therefore, the research was ended in this cycle.

5.Technique of Collecting Data 
Data collection techniques in  classroom action research is quantitative and qualitative data (Sukidin at al, 2002). Quantitative data is data collection techniques to calculate the test results . In the quantitative data , researchers collected data from students' speaking test . Student speaking test was given at the end of the cycle . This test showed improvement in students after they use the World Cafe strategy.

Qualitative data is the data collected using questionnaires , interviews and observation to interpret the results in explaining . In this research , researcher used teacher and student observation checklists and field notes and interviews . First, the researcher collected data from observations and checklists that had been filled in by the collaborators of things to do in the classroom , while applying the world cafe every meeting learning strategies in the classroom . Then the researchers collected data from interviews at the end of cycle in order to know students’ response of using the World Cafe.

6. Technique of Analyzing the Data
Quantitative data
Test 
The data that was gotten from the  speaking tests were quantitative data, which were in form of scores or numbers. The scores calculated to find the percentage of the number of students who got score ≥76. The formula below was used to find the percentage of the number of students who got ≥76 (Sudijono, 2010).

P=x/y  × 100%
P = percentage
x= the total of students who reach score ≥76
y = total number of students
Then, to see the improvement of the students, the researcher used formula as follow:

Y = the improvement of the students
X1 = the percentage of the number of students who get ≥76 in primary data
X2 = the percentage of the number of students who get ≥76 in final test

Qualitative data
The data from the observation checklist and field notes and interview were in words form. It was called by qualitative data. To analyze this kind of data, Gay (1990) explained the steps of analyzing the qualitative data are: data managing, reading and memorizing, describing, classifying, and interpreting.

Data Managing
In this step, the researcher organized the data that got from observation checklist and field notes. These data will be put in order of the date taken and in folders according to its type.

Reading and Memoing
In this step of analyzing data, the researcher read the result of observation and analyzed the result while wrote notes or memo to make it easy to analyze the data

Describing
Here, the researcher wrote description about the data that wrote in memo as well as possible.

Classifying
In classifying step, the researcher classified the data. The observation checklist and field notes data will be put in the order of some categories.

Interpreting
In this step, the researcher interpreted the data from the result of the research into easy understand word.

Indicator of success

  • The percentage of students who reach ≥ 76  for speaking score is ≥ 60% of total students. 
  • Most of students (≥ 75 %) more active in speaking shown by the result of the observation checklist and field notes and interview.
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